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学会摄影构图的10种重要思维知识

发布时间:2022-09-27 20:48:53点击:282 作者:深圳摄影工作室​来源:深圳风洲文化传媒

文章简介:欢迎来到摄影构图的奇妙世界!在最一般的术语中,摄影构图是通过画面布置来构图的艺术。几乎每个人都知道的一件构图对照片的成功至关重要,因为构图是一门完全主观的艺术,是每个人都认为应该打破的规则不经意间完成的。

  会摄影先学构图,构图除了需要我们勤于动手,思维也是不能少的哈。

  欢迎来到摄影构图的奇妙世界!在最一般的术语中,摄影构图是通过画面布置来构图的艺术。几乎每个人都知道的一件构图对照片的成功至关重要,因为构图是一门完全主观的艺术,是每个人都认为应该打破的规则不经意间完成的。

  我无法回答这个问题,但请允许我分享一些关于这个商品的曲折想法,而不是像其他人一样,给你一个刻板的文字概述。

  一、摄影构图的10种重要思维

  1.非空白画布构图思维

  其他视觉艺术从空白的“画布”开始。在摄影中,画布是先存在的;构图和整理素材是我们的工作。其他视觉艺术(绘画、绘画、平面设计和雕塑)、表演艺术(舞蹈、表演、音乐)和书面艺术(散文和诗歌)都或多或少地让艺术家从一块空白的石板或画布开始。乐谱上没有音符,拉伸的画布上没有标记,页面上也没有单词。艺术家故意而有条不紊地添加了这些素材。

  在摄影中,只有在摄影棚中才能开始使用空白画布,在那里可以控制帧中的内容、照明和商品本身。否则,在摄影工作室之外,已经拍摄了“画布”。这就是你面前的一切。摄影师的工作是选择从画布中删除或添加的内容。

摄影构图

  2.给产品的定位思维

  你如何改变眼前的一切?有时候你可以在场景中移动一些东西,但这并不总是一个选择。所以,你还有两种可能:通过构图或移动你自己或你的摄影机来调整构图。如果有缩放镜头,可以放大以隔离场景的一部分,也可以缩小以添加到场景中。如果你有一个固定焦距的镜头,你需要把你的身体移到另一个位置(如果这样做可行且安全的话)来重新配置图片。

  3.潜意识中的自然功能构图思维

  对我来说,构图功能很像天生的运动功能。游戏或运动的规则是可以教的,但在某种程度上,人必须具备进行这项运动的体能和无形的才能。然而,熟练程度可以通过经验、培训和实践获得,技能通常可以提高。很少有运动员能在比赛最激烈的时候参加某项运动。他们从独特的功能开始,然后通过学习、培训和经验来发展。这是一场由来已久的“天性与后天培养”的辩论,它也可以很容易地应用到艺术中。在摄影中,有些人具有“构图眼光”,有些人没有这种“眼光”。

  有时,你的潜意识会在取景器中看到一幅让你大脑愉悦的图片。您按下快门,摄像机就会捕捉图片。稍后再看,你可以看到这篇图片写得很好,你的大脑无意识地记录下来了。如果这发生在你身上,恭喜你!你有天赋!(或者,你很幸运!)

  很多人会嫉妒你的天赋。但不要依赖你天生的功能。我鼓励你学习艺术,因为知识和对构图的持续研究可以帮助你更好地理解你的见解。这些知识可以用来完善你天生的技能,帮助你朝着更好的方向前进。

  如果你没有“天赋”,仍然有希望。不要放弃!这其中很多是可以学习的。即使你在不知不觉中难以看到,良好构图的意识也可以应用到你的图片中。为了改变残酷的事实,就像有些人无论尝试多少次都无法在外场接住飞球一样,艺术有时对一些摄影师来说是难以捉摸的。但是,艺术的神奇之处在于:如果你喜欢你创造的艺术,那么无论你如何构思,都不应该有人把它从你身上拿走。

  4.强制拍照

  再看一下我们外野手的类比,对某些事情进行深入研究可能会产生不良影响。如果外场手试图根据温度和相对湿度计算球场速度、球拍摆动速度、球和球拍的减震、所涉及的角度、行星的重力加速度、飞行中球的摩擦系数以及球沿规定弧线的加速度和减速度,他或她很可能无法接球。外野手的大脑进行这些计算

  在摄影中,观看和拍摄构图的照片可能不需要有意识的思考或数学。此外,有时过度去构图的图片可能是你最大的敌人。你的天赋和大脑可能已经知道成功的构图。你的工作是让摄像机中的图片与你看到的相匹配。对场景的过度分析很容易使摄影师无法为图片选择好的构图。有时,你大脑中的知识可能会推翻天赋看到和喜欢的东西。这是心灵与眼镜之间的斗争。你不能强迫好的构图发生,你只能创造它。

  作为一名摄影师,你会发现在某些场景中,你的天赋看到了它认为你应该拍摄的东西,但无论你怎么努力(开动脑筋或关上脑筋),你都无法通过构图将场景变成一张好照片。当我面对这种情况时,我要么拍张照片证明我在那里,要么试着记住我想要捕捉的东西,走开,然后在余生哀叹我无法捕捉到它。

  不是每一个飞球都能被抓住,不管你有多好。

摄影构图

  5.组成和意义的构图思维

  加分也可以是无形的。有时一篇图片行得通,但你无法解释它为什么行得通。大脑只喜欢它在图片整体框架中看到的东西。相反,有时你可以指出一篇成功的图片,并确切地知道它为什么有效。相反,如果你发现自己站在某人旁边,当你看着一张照片时,你会说:“这就是照片的意义,这就是为什么照片构图很好的原因”,那么你很可能在实现良好构图,和拍摄受众喜欢图片的斗争中失败了。

  6.关注商品本身的特点去构图

  图片应该有助于识别、强调、补充、突出商品,而不是偏离商品。拍摄对象很可能是您拍摄特定图片的原因,因此,如果构图将观众的注意力吸引到画面的其他部分,那么您就分散了观众对照片主要目的的注意力。当涉及到如何围绕拍摄对象构图时,你会希望构图能够起作用。有时是隐蔽的,以确保观众知道拍摄对象是什么,以及照片的目的是什么。

  7.天赋的旅程

  构图是:排列、创作、观看、构图和裁剪。它必须引导观众。观众的天赋会穿过照片的框架。路线并不总是可以预测的,但是你如何在照片中安排道具,或者如何构图场景,可以作为天赋通过你的图片进行愉快旅行的指南,这一旅行可以让观众理解照片的意义。

  8.使用基本素材构图思维

  构图素材包括:图案、纹理、对称、不对称、景深、线条、曲线、框架、对比度、颜色、视点、深度、负空间、填充空间、前景、背景、视觉张力、形状。使用这些素材中的一个或多个来拍摄适合您的图片的构图。当然,不是所有的东西都可以随时使用,但要研究它们,识别它们,并利用它们来丰富你的图片。

  9.掌握构图的三个基本要素

  我觉得一个好的摄影师有三个基本要素:摄影知识、构图眼光和艺术视野。

  今天的摄像机拥有如此惊人的技能,它们可以做任何事情,也可以为你拍出好的照片。“但是仍然需要我们去构图。构图是摄影的一个方面,它100%依赖于你作为摄影师的努力。这是摄影的一部分,摄像机无法单独完成。

  因此,好的构图并不是仅仅靠昂贵的摄影摄影器材就能实现的。同样的道理,你可能拥有这个世界上最敏锐的天赋,但如果没有有效使用摄像机的功能,你可能就不能拍摄你在脑海中感知到的照片。摄影是一种以技能为基础的艺术形式。即使是世界上最好的构图也可能因为图片失焦、曝光过度或曝光不足,或是某些摄像机设置选择不当而遭到破坏!

  而且,另一方面,摄影师可以用缺乏的构图制作出高质的图片。

学会摄影构图的10种重要思维知识

  10.利用构图规则

  到目前为止,我还没有使用“规则”这个词来讨论构图。但是,如果没有对“构图规则”的承认,对构图的讨论是不完整的。所以,在你深入了解摄影构图系列介绍之后的内容之前,要知道,在构图方面,没有对错之分。没有硬性规定。对于每一条规则,都有无数违反规则的图片。构图的成功取决于构图是否补充而不是减损给定的图片,而不管你是否遵循、回避、忽略或打破规则。你应该知道,你可以按照构图规则画一个T,但仍然可以创造出一张缺少的照片。要拍出一幅出色的图片,需要的不仅仅是好的构图。

  无论商品是什么,构图都可以塑造好的图片或破坏图片。

  总结

  好照片没有构图规则,只有好照片。

  埃米尔·佐拉曾说:“没有天赋,艺术家什么都不是,但没有工作,天赋什么都不是。”

  “现在,在拍照之前参考构图规则有点像在散步之前参考万有引力定律。这些规则和定律是从既成事实推导出来的;它们是反射的产物。”——爱德华·韦斯顿

  “规则是愚蠢的、武断的、愚蠢的东西,会很快把你提升到可以接受的平庸水平,然后阻止你进一步进步。”——布鲁斯·巴恩鲍姆(Bruce Barnbaum),《摄影艺术》(the Art of Photography)一书

  “你的天赋必须看到生活本身为你提供的构图或表情,你必须凭直觉知道何时点击摄像机。”-亨利·卡特·布列松

  “摄影没有规则,它不是一项运动。重要的是结果,无论它是如何实现的。”——比尔·勃兰特

  “当商品被迫符合预先设想的模式时,就不可能有新鲜的视觉。遵循构图规则只会导致单调乏味的重复图片陈词滥调。”——爱德华·韦斯顿

  “一张好照片就是知道站在哪里。”——安塞尔·亚当斯

  英文翻译:

  11 Thoughts: An Introduction to Photographic Composition

  Composition noun com·po·si·tion ˌkäm-pə-ˈzi-shən : the way in which something is put together or arranged : the combination of parts or elements that make up something

  Welcome to the wonderful world of photographic composition! In its most general terms, photographic composition is the art of composing an image through framing. And there exists the problem. How is it that one thing that almost everyone agrees is critical to the success of a photograph is completely subjective—an art unto itself—and is sculpted by rules that everyone agrees should and can be broken regularly, with great success?

  There is no way I can answer that question, but instead of giving you the same old, predictable introduction to composition as others, permit me to share some meandering thoughts about the subject.

  1. The Non-Blank Canvas

  Other visual arts start with a blank “canvas”… in photography, the canvas is preexisting; it is our job to frame and eliminate elements. The other visual arts (painting, drawing, graphic design, and sculpture), the performing arts (dance, acting, music), and the written arts (prose and poetry), all allow artists to start, more or less, with a blank slate or canvas. There are no notes on the sheet music, there are no marks on the stretched canvas, and there are no words on the page. The artist adds them deliberately and methodically.

  In photography, the only time you start with a blank canvas is in the studio, where you can control what is in the frame, the lighting, and the subject matter itself. Otherwise, outside the studio, the “canvas” has already been created. It is what is in front of you. It is the photographer’s job to choose what is eliminated from the canvas or added to it.

  2. Positioning

  How do you change what is already in front of you? Well, sometimes you can literally move something in a scene, but that is not always an option. So, you are left with two other possibilities: adjusting your composition through framing or by moving yourself or your gear. If you have a zoom lens, you can zoom in to isolate a portion of a scene, or zoom out to add to the scene. If you have a fixed focal-length lens, you will need to move your body to another position (if it’s feasible and safe to do so) to reconfigure the image.

  Photographs © Todd Vorenkamp

  3. Natural Abilities

  To me, compositional ability is a lot like natural athletic ability. The rules of a game or sport can be taught, but, at some level, the person has to have the physical ability and intangible talent to perform that sport. However, proficiency can be gained by experience, training, and practice and skills can often be improved. Very few athletes enter a sport at the top of their game. They start with a unique ability and then develop it through study, training, and experience. This is the age-old “nature versus nurture” debate and it can easily be applied to the arts, as well. In photography, there are those with an “eye for composition” and there are those who do not have that “eye.”

  Sometimes, your subconscious sees an image in the viewfinder that looks pleasing to your brain. You release the shutter and the camera captures an image. Looking at it later, you can see that the composition worked well and your brain registered it unconsciously. If this happens to you, congratulations! You have a gift! You have the “eye.” (Or, you just got lucky!)

  Many will be jealous of your gift. But do not rest on your natural abilities. I encourage you to study the art because the knowledge and ongoing study of composition can help you to better understand your unique vision. This knowledge can be used to refine your natural-born skills and help drive you toward even better images.

  If you do not have that “eye,” there is still hope. Do not give up! Much of this can be learned. Consciousness of good composition can be applied to your images even if you struggle to see it unconsciously. In the interest of being brutally honest, just as there are those who cannot catch a fly ball in the outfield no matter how many times they try, art is, at times, elusive to some photographers. But, here is the magical thing about art: if you love the art you create, no one should be able to take that away from you—no matter how you frame it.

  4. Forcing a Photograph

  Revisiting the analogy of our intrepid outfielder, applying intensive study of something may have undesirable effects. If the outfielder tries to calculate the speed of the pitch, the speed of the bat swing, the shock absorption of the ball and bat based on temperature and relative humidity, the angles involved, the gravitational acceleration of the planet, the friction coefficient of the ball in flight, and the acceleration and deceleration of the ball along a prescribed arc, chances are he or she will not be in position to make a catch. The outfielder’s brain does these calculations instantaneously, without mathematics and the glove and ball magically intersect.

  In photography, seeing and capturing a well-composed photograph can happen without conscious thought or mathematics. Additionally, sometimes over-thinking composition can be your worst enemy. Your eye and brain might already know successful composition. Your job is to get the image in the camera to match what you see. Over-analysis of the scene may easily preclude the photographer from choosing a good composition for the image. Sometimes the knowledge in your brain might overrule what the eye sees and likes. This is the battle between the mind and the mind’s eye. You cannot force good composition to happen, you can only create it.

  As a photographer, you will find that there are scenarios where your mind’s eye sees something it thinks you should photograph, but no matter how hard you try (brain on or brain off), you cannot make that scene into a good photograph through composition. When I am faced with this scenario, I either take a photo to prove that I was there, or try to remember what I wanted to capture, walk away, and then bemoan the fact for the rest of my life that I couldn’t capture it.

  Not every fly ball can be caught, no matter how good you are.

  5. Composition and Meaning

  Composition can also be intangible. Sometimes a composition works, but you cannot explain why it works. The mind just likes what it sees in the overall framing of an image. On the contrary, there are times where you can point to a successful composition and know exactly why it works. Conversely, if you ever find yourself standing next to someone and, while looking at one of your photographs you say, “This is what the photograph is about and this is why the photograph has great composition,” you’ve likely lost the battle to achieve good composition and create an image that works for your audience.

  6. Focus on the Subject

  Composition should help identify, emphasize, complement, isolate, or highlight the subject—not detract from it. The subject is likely the reason you captured a particular image, so if the composition works to bring the viewer’s attention to other parts of the frame, then you have successfully distracted the viewer from the primary purpose of the photograph. When it comes to how you frame the image around your subject, you will want the composition to work, sometimes covertly, to ensure that the audience knows what the subject is, and what the purpose of the photograph is.

  7. The Eye’s Journey

  Composition is: arranging, creating, seeing, framing, and cropping. It must guide the viewer. The eye of the viewer will make its way through the frame of the photograph. The path is not always predicable, but how you arrange objects in the photograph, or how you frame the scene, can serve as a guide for the eye’s (hopefully) pleasing journey through your image—a journey that allows the viewer to understand the meaning of your photograph.

  8. Elemental Concerns

  Elements of composition are: patterns, texture, symmetry, asymmetry, depth of field, lines, curves, frames, contrast, color, viewpoint, depth, negative space, filled space, foreground, background, visual tension, shapes. Use one or more of these elements to create a composition that works for your image. Of course, not all will be available at all times, but study them, recognize them, and employ them to help enrich your images.

  9. You Create Composition

  I feel that there are three basic ingredients to a good photographer: knowledge of camera, an eye for composition, and artistic vision.

  Today’s cameras have such amazing technology that they can do everything but make a great photograph for you. That “but” refers to composition. Composition is the aspect of the medium that is 100% dependent on your efforts as the photographer. It is the one part of photography that the camera cannot do on its own. Therefore, good composition is not something that can be achieved by expensive photography gear alone. Along the same lines, you may have the most astute eye on the planet, but, without the aptitude to effectively use your camera, you may lack the ability to make the photograph that you perceive in your mind’s eye. Photography is a technically based art form. Even the world’s best composition can be ruined because the image is out of focus, badly over- or underexposed, or the victim of some poorly chosen camera settings!

  And, on the flip side of that coin, a photographer can make a technically perfect image with a composition that is sorely lacking.

  10. Rules. If You Must.

  I made it this far into a discussion about composition without using the word “rules.” But, no discussion of composition is complete without, at least, an acknowledgement of the “Rules of Composition.” So, fair warning, before you dig into the content following this introduction to the B&H Photo Composition Series, know that, when it comes to composition, there is no right or wrong. There are no hard-and-fast rules. For every rule, there are countless images that break the rule. Success in composition is defined by whether the composition complements, instead of detracts from, a given image regardless of whether you follow, skirt, ignore, or break the rules. You should know that you could follow the rules of composition to a T and still create a photograph that is lacking. It takes more than good composition to make a remarkable image.

  11. The Scale Tipper

  Regardless of the subject matter, composition can make or break an image.

  Postscript

  I will leave you with a few thoughts on composition from some of the world’s greatest artists, photographers, writers, and me.

  “The artist is nothing without the gift, but the gift is nothing without work.” —Émile Zola

  “Now to consult the rules of composition before making a picture is a little like consulting the law of gravitation before going for a walk. Such rules and laws are deduced from the accomplished fact; they are the products of reflection.”—Edward Weston

  “Rules are foolish, arbitrary, mindless things that raise you quickly to a level of acceptable mediocrity, then prevent you from progressing further.” —Bruce Barnbaum, from the book, The Art of Photography

  “There are no rules for good photographs, only good photographs.” —Ansel Adams

  “Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera.” —Henri Carter-Bresson

  “Photography has no rules, it is not a sport. It is the result which counts, no matter how it is achieved.” —Bill Brandt

  “When subject matter is forced to fit into preconceived patterns, there can be no freshness of vision. Following rules of composition can only lead to a tedious repetition of pictorial clichés.” —Edward Weston

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